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Cassava is either the first or the second most important staple food in
many sub-Saharan African countries. Cassava production and
processing practices remain largely habitual in most of the producing
countries despite the high potentials for its commercial production and
processing, its export potential, and its use in local industries to reduce
import expenditure on substitute imported products. Most cassava
farmers are either not aware of available modern technologies for growing and processing cassava or lack the ability to use them.
There is also paucity of cassava production specialists, agribusiness
experts, processing and, agro-machinery experts to provide advice to
farmers, processors, product assemblers, and other value chain
actors. The lack of technical advice hinders the ability of small and
medium scale farmers to improve value chain efficiency and
profitability of their cassava enterprises. It contributes to the inability of
most farmers to manage cassava production as a business and
hinders processors from upgrading from the traditional rudimentary
processing methods to mechanical, high capacity, efficient and
profitable processing enterprises. Consequently, cassava value
chain actors in Africa are not competitive enough to participate in the
global market.
Although new commercial, medium-scale cassava farmers are
beginning to emerge in some cassava growing countries, such as in
DRC, Ghana and Nigeria, most of them use only some and not all
available or recently developed modern techniques that can increase
efficiency of growing and processing cassava. Inability to apply modern
technologies in a holistic or consolidated manner for cassava growing
and processing operations reduces the prospect to maximize profit.
This training manual was developed based on research results and
field experiences of cassava value chain development experts. It
provides consolidated and relevant set of techno-commercial oriented
information presented with simple annotated drawings to explain the
step-by-step use of improveiniques and tools of cassava
production, handling, processing, storage, quality assurance and
marketing.
The manual will be useful to farmers, processors, marketers, extension
agents and other experts who are supporting cassava
commercialization in Africa. The use of the manual by value chain
actors will enhance their knowledge and capacity to improve efficiency
of their cassava related operations and can increase profitability
2 Cassava stem handling for increased yield
Background
Cassava is propagated by stem cuttings. These cuttings must be
handled properly for good sprouting and establishment. In this section
we look at the best practices in stem handling for increased yield.
Preparing healthy cassava stems for planting.
How to plant cassava cuttings
Stored cassava stems under the shed
Cassava cuttings
Avoid destroying           
nodes and jagged cuts
;Stems should be stored vertically on the soil under a shade. The
distal end of the stems should touch the soil, which is moistened
regularly, with the surroundings kept free from weeds.
Handle the stems with care not to destroy the nodes that may
result in losses. Do not make jagged cut surfaces or keep stems
in the open (leading to drying)
Cut stems, with sharp tools, preferably secateurs or cutlasses,
into 25-cm cuttings with 5–7 nodes ,
Obtain stems for planting from mature plants 10–12 months old.
Store under the shade for 2–5 days (never more than 2 weeks)
before cutting and planting. This makes the stems sprout faster
than when they are planted freshly cut from the field.
Cassava cuttings can be planted in a slanting or angular position
(45 ). In this case, the cuttings are buried in the soil with one-third
above the soil surface. Ensure that the buds point upwards. This
is where the cuttings sprout (Fig 4a).
Cuttings can also be planted in a horizontal position in which the
cuttings are completely buried in the soil to a depth.


Rapid multiplication in a nursery using 2-node cassava
stakes:
Step 1: Plant the cuttings at a spacing of 1 m × 1 m on the crest of ridges
or mounds as conventionally recommended. This will give a plant
population of 10,000 stands/ha.
Vertical or angular planting is recommended in areas of high
rainfall
Horizontal planting is better in dry areas.
Rapid multiplication technique can be used to produce large quantities
of cassava stems as planting materials for subsequent seasons.
Select and use improved, healthy, and pest/disease free cassava
stems.
Cut the stems into several 2-node or 3-node stakes using
secateurs, a sharp knife/machete, or a stake cutting machine.
Treat the stakes with available insecticides or fungicides by
measuring out the quantities into a container, add water and
mix thoroughly. For example, 1kg of Neem leaf powder in 5L of
water. Put the stakes into the solution for 10 minutes.
Remove from the solution and place in perforated transparent
polythene bags for pre-sprouting.
Step 3: Store in the polythene bags under the shade of a tree or under
the cassava canopy or in a farm shed for 7–10 days to sprout.

Planting at 45o Planting horizontally
Step 2: How to produce large quantities of cassava stems
Rapid multiplication in a nursery using 2-node cassava stakes. Plant the cuttings at a spacing of 1 m × 1 m on the crest of ridges or mounds as conventionally recommended. This will give a plant
population of 10,000 stands/ha.
Vertical or angular planting is recommended in areas of high rainfall
Horizontal planting is better in dry areas.
Rapid multiplication technique can be used to produce large quantities
of cassava stems as planting materials for subsequent seasons.
Select and use improved, healthy, and pest/disease free cassava stems.
Cut the stems into several 2-node or 3-node stakes using
secateurs, a sharp knife/machete, or a stake cutting machine.
Treat the stakes with available insecticides or fungicides by
measuring out the quantities into a container, add water and
mix thoroughly. For example, 1kg of Neem leaf powder in 5L of
water. Put the stakes into the solution for 10 minutes.

Remove from the solution and place in perforated transparent
polythene bags for pre-sprouting.
Step 3: Store in the polythene bags under the shade of a tree or under
the cassava canopy or in a farm shed for 7–10 days to sprout
Prepare the nursery for planting.
 Expose the polythene bags in the field by placing them on
 and mounds, or on the flat ground for 20 minutes. ridges Plant on the main farm.

Transplant only when there is enough moisture in the soil.
Avoid bruising the harvested stems
20–25 cm
Transplant the sprouted stakes into the nursery at 2–4 cm
depth at a spacing of 100 cm × 50 cm or 50 cm × 50 cm
in a well prepared rapid multiplication field. Handle the stakes
carefully to avoid breakage.
Harvest cassava stems at 6–8 months after planting. To
harvest, cut the stems at a height of 20–25 cm above the
ground level with a sharp machete.
planting:
Step 1:- Treat the stakes with insecticides or fungicides as for the
 2-node cuttings treatment.
Plant the treated stakes directly on the multiplication field using
the appropriate spacing as described in the 2-node
cuttings method.

 (Step 5).
Zero input
How to use zero input technologies to get good yields
m Choose a good soil with medium fertility and good drainage.
 Avoid stony, clayey or water-logged soils.
m select planting materials from healthy cassava plants (9-15
m Handle the stems carefully to avoid bruising or damaging the
Do not use force when tying the stems in bundles and when
loading vehicles.
Zero input technologies to increase yield in cassava 3 production
In shallow soils csassava is planted on mounds to increase topsoil volume perplanter.

In deep soils cassava
is planted on flat land
Using force when tying the stems in bundles may cause
breakage.
nodes and to improve sprouting.
months old) without stem or leaf damage from pests or
diseases.
Use a farm that has been well maintained.
You can grow cassava using zero input technology. This does not
need chemicals, such as fertilizers and herbicides, or organic
compost. The zero input method encourages biological activity in the
soil and provides natural protection from diseases. It can guarantee
good yields, provided that you select a land with adequate organic
matter, use the right varieties, plant at the right spacing and time,
and ensure a weed-free farm. In this section we look at this
environmentally-friendly farming practice.
Practice minimum tillage in sandy soils to conserve organic
matter, and moisture, and to reduce soil erosion.
In shallow or hard soils, make ridges or mounds to increase
the topsoil volume per plant for a better establishment.
Choose improved varieties with the highest and most stable
yield performance in the particular farm location.




CHOICE OF CROPS AND VARIETIES UNDER ORGANIC FARMING
            Organic farming systems encourage the use of rotations and manures to sustain soil fertility. Carefully managed soils with a high proportion of humus offer essential advantages with respect to water retention, ion exchange, soil erosion, and animal life in the soil. A high proportion of humus in the soil gives uniform distribution of nutrients and promotes plant hygiene.
             Green manuring and inter cropping of legumes is another aspect for biological farming systems not only in regard to weed control, but also in reducing the Leaching of nutrients and in reducing soil erosion.  A green   cover through out most of the year is one the main goals of such farming methods.  Depending on the green manure mixture or the Legumes used for under sowing, there may be an increase in soil organic matter and soil   ‘N’ as well as in other nutrients.
Choice of crops and varieties
  1. All seeds and plant materials should be certified organic.
  2. Species and varieties cultivated should, as far possible, be adapted to the soil and climatic conditions and be resistant to pests and diseases.   
  3. A moratorium on all transgenic food and agricultural applications should be imposed.
  4. In the choice of varieties, genetic diversity should be taken in to consideration.
  5. Vegetables, fruits and Cassava also can be organically grown
  6. Vegetables like Ewedu, Efo Tete, Alubosa, Atarodo you can get this type of organic farming in Nigeria in the farming cultivating in along LASU IGANDO ROAD
                                                       

Rice
    Rice has become one of the major exportable commodities, with a percent share in total agriculture exports.  Traditionally India is major exporter of aromatic rice of basmati quality; India has also made a mark in the non-basmati category since the beginning of the 1990s.
The Genetic Enhancement of Quality Rice’s for Higher Productivity and Export network, DRR, Hyderabad released Pusa Basmati 1, the first semi-dwarf high-yielding basmati variety which is now being accepted in world markets.  The rice varieties with higher yield resistance to key pests and diseases and high standards of quality Kasturi, Haryana Basmati, Ranbir Basmati.
Non- basmati quality rice
Long slender 11 Nos:
      IR 64, Prakash, Saleem, Krishna Hansa and PR 106.
Medium slender:  8 Nos.]
                  Samba Mahsuri
                  Sona Mahsuri
                  Krishna veni
                  Kavya
                  White Ponni.
Short grains aromatic rice
      In addition to growing unique long grain basmati varieties India also abounds with hundreds of short grain aromatic types which enjoy pationge in certain parts of the country on account of their desirable cooking and eating quality features.
      In TN: Geeraga samba.
Medicinal Plants
      Medicinal plants are for the curing of disease and residue of pesticide can convert it into poison. Hence medicinal plants should only be cultivated in organic farming.
 In Gujarat, B.H Save in his farm, Kalpavruksa, the coconut have yielded more fruit than in farm using pesticides and Fruits.
At Sanghavi Farm, the quality and volume of banana is very good.  88 kg than 75 kg/.tree. Narayan Reddys Farm at Bangalore. Coconut, fruits, vegetable, mulberry, finger millet, rice.
      Fruits
Sappota, mango, watermelon spices. Exports- oriented organic agriculture is attractive because of premium prices.

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farmers are either not aware of available modern technologies for
growing and processing cassava or lack the ability to use them. There is also paucity of cassava production specialists, agribusiness
experts, processing and, agro-machinery experts to provide advice to
farmers, processors, product assemblers, and other value chain
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